Membranes have widespread applications. Proper selection of membrane processes, materials, feed rate, driving forces and configuration are pertinent for designing an effective membrane system.
1. Water Purification
A universal solvent, WATER, will dissolve many substances in it. The water that dissolves your coffee or tea and sugar in the morning or that you make infant's formula or use to prepare your juices might also have dissolved some atoms of lead from the pipes in your home or picked up a microgram of contaminants from the farm upstream from the filtration plant. If your water is chlorinated it almost certainly contains a few micrograms of chloroform (a byproduct of the disinfection process). The question you need to ask are " (1) what are the contaminates in my water, (2) what are their concentration levels, and (3) do they pose short or long term health risks at those levels."
The answers depend on where you live (country, city, surrounding land use, etc.), the primary source of your drinking water (confined or unconfined aquifer or surface water), your water supplier (private or community well, small or large municipal water system), and what is happening at any moment as your water travels from its source through the treatment/distribution system to your tap. At any moment, water can become dangerously contaminated because of several reasons including some natural events. One of the most notorious recent examples of water that was safe one day and unsafe the next was in metro municipalities. Unfortunately, delay in taking necessary actions led to illness linked to the water/food contamination. Water treatment is not a simple issue. It is, rather, a delicate balancing act. There is an ongoing and vigorous debate among the various groups interested in drinking water safety concerning the costs, the benefits, and the risks of every aspect of the water treatment and distribution business. Anything that is done to treat municipal water costs money provides the benefit of water that has reduced levels of the targeted contaminants, and decreases risk of disease from the targeted contaminants. The treatment process may also add substances to the water that would increases risks of other disease for the people who drink the water. Are you concerned about the quality and safety of your tap water? If yes, the following reasons will convince you to purchase a high quality water filter from GRT. You may want to ensure the safety of your family in the event of some accident in the water purification/distribution system With contaminants constantly increasing in our environment, removing one of the potential sources of harmful chemicals or disease causing organisms was something positive that you could do very easily for your loved ones The information that you have read about possible effects of contaminants on children and pregnancy could particularly sobering Lead, Arsenic or other metal impurities in the pipe solder and plumbing fixtures possibly leaching into the water You may not like drinking even a little bit of chloroform on a daily basis over the course of a lifetime
2. Industrial Water Treatment
- Waste Water Treatment
- Water Treatment for Thermal Plants
- Municipal Water Treatment
Wastewater treatment plants do just as they say. They treat the water that goes down our drains before releasing it back into the environment. Wastewater treatment plants have evolved considerably over time. There continues to be huge volumes of wastewater pumped directly into rivers, streams and the ocean itself, across the world. The impact of this is severe – aside from the damage to the marine environment and to fisheries it can cause, it does little to preserve water at a time when many are predicting that a global shortage is just around the corner. As it stands this method of disposing of wastewater – any form of water that has been contaminated by a commercial or domestic process, including sewage and byproducts of manufacturing and mining – is largely an issue in developing nations, particularly across Asia. In the past, water treatment was mainly focused on pretreatment requirements. While pretreatment remains a key area of importance, more companies are assuming higher responsibility in terms of treating their wastewater streams. Instead of targeting only the front end of the plant, water treatment strategies have expanded to include the whole plant. Recent advancements in technology and awareness have brought about new technologies which can treat wastewater to remove these nutrients is done in the third phase, known as tertiary treatment, in addition to the pre-treatment followed by the second level treatment. GRT envisions utilizing its custom made membranes for this application.
3. Printing Industry
While there have been changes within the printing industry over the years, the printing process and chemicals are basically the same - at least for the present. There is now concern and activity due to the impetus from governmental, environmental and occupational safety regulations that is changing the industry's focus. These changes range from utilizing water based fountain solutions to complying with regulations on discharge to the sewer system. Enforcement of such regulations will stimulate the industry to become cognizant of the different water treatment processes available. Based on this, the following is a description of the four major processes used within the industry. From a supplier’s perspective, the printing industry is fragmented. Therefore, it is not feasible to provide specific water treatment recommendations for a particular process as it may pertain to colors, inks, papers, press operation, etc. There are four basic water treatment processes that the printing industry needs to consider: filtration, softening, deionization and reverse osmosis. There are four basic water treatment processes that the printing industry needs to consider: filtration, softening, deionization and reverse osmosis. Advanced treatment systems such as this custom-built microfiltration (MF) skid are used extensively in chemical industry water treatment applications. Consistent with industry trends toward water efficiency, a greater number of newer plants in both the chemical and pharmaceutical industries are adopting more innovative and sustainable treatment practices and designs.
4. Food and Beverages
Up to 70% of the world’s fresh water usage is for agriculture purposes, meaning everything we eat impacts the water supply. This large water need has become a critical issue for the food and beverage industry. Lack of water impacts the ability to grow economically and sustain population growth. Since we can’t make or produce new water, it is necessary to conserve and manage water. As a major component of agriculture and manufacturing, companies consider good water management strategic to their business and a key competitive advantage with positive bottom line impacts, as well as being good for the environment. Galaxy Research Technologies helps the food and beverage industry meet stringent water quality and water treatment requirements, with advanced technologies, products, services, and expertise, resulting in sustainable solutions. GRT has technology to enhance customers’ food & beverage products and to treat incoming ingredient water and outgoing process water. We offer pilot plants in our laboratory or at the customer’s facility to verify feasibility, dependability, and cost-effectiveness. Once the customer has experienced the advantages of the technologies offered, we can further optimize the plant design to specific requirements. We work closely with our customers to understand their challenges and engineer efficient, customized solutions.
5. Oil and Gas Industry
Water is not normally associated in many people's minds with the production of oil and gas from underground reservoirs. Consequently, with no energy potential or sales value, is its separation, treatment and disposal important? There are many reasons why water treatment is a vital and integral part of both oil and gas production operations. Inadequate design of the water treatment system, or forgetting to optimise the system's operation, could lead to a shutdown of the hydrocarbon production system. Such a shutdown might have to last until the problem has been resolved, with associated significant loss of revenue. The two major oil-bearing rock types are the sedimentary rocks sandstone and limestone. These rocks are porous with pore sizes ranging from the sub-micron to tens of microns in diameter. Some, but not all of these pores are connected, allowing fluids to pass through the rocks. Figure 1 shows that in addition to the oil, both gas and water are also found in a reservoir. Typically the water underlies the oil and is often referred to as either ‘connate' or ‘formation' water. These waters differ in their origins. Connate water is the water trapped in the rock during its formation and over its life its composition can change. Formation water is water which has been formed in situ and becomes trapped with the hydrocarbons below the impermeable cap rock. When an oil well is brought into production the oil, gas and water are co-produced
Water plays a vital role in agricultural intensification. In the past several decades, the concentration of inputs on high-value land has relieved pressure on land expansion, increased farm incomes and allowed an urbanizing global population a measure of food security. But it comes at a cost. Globally, agriculture water withdrawals (2,703 km3/yr) account for more than double the combined withdrawals for municipal and industrial use (468 km3/yr and 731 km3/yr, respectively). The application of agrochemicals and the accumulation of low quality surface and groundwater within and beyond irrigation schemes has degraded land and polluted watercourses, aquifers and coastal zones. Current levels of demand are already stressing river basins and aquifers, with water scarcity driving the rapid rise in groundwater use in agriculture. And with rising populations, growing incomes and more unpredictable rainfall patterns, demand for water in agriculture is expected to grow. Managing the global agricultural production risk in the face of producer price volatility, increasing temperatures, and more variable events will require both rainfed and irrigated agricultural systems to become much more responsive to climate shocks and much more flexible in approach while staying within environmental limits. Water scarcity can managed by more attention to river basin planning, transparent allocation of water among competing sectors and by better maintenance and operation of existing infrastructure in that basin. At the farm level, farmers can switch to less water intensive crops, and different farming techniques to generate more value from the water and other inputs at their disposal. Technological innovations combined with changes in the policy environment are playing an increasingly important role in agricultural water management. Advances in the use of remote sensing technologies are now making it possible to cost-effectively estimate crop evapotranspiration (the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration to the atmosphere) from farmers’ fields and to improve water accounting and management at the regional and basin-wide levels. Since 2010, China has adopted this approach in the Xinjiang Turpan Water Conservation Project in the arid northwest region of the country. The World Bank is working together with its member countries and investment partners to reform water use in agriculture. To ensure such reforms are environmentally sustainable, the Bank uses an approach to irrigation and drainage projects that emphasizes transparent accounting of agricultural water use, modernization of existing public irrigation schemes, and transformation of public institutions together with improved sector investment planning.
Renewable energies, such as solar and wind power, are increasingly being introduced as alternative energy sources on a global scale toward a low-carbon society. For the next-generation power system, which uses a large number of these distributed power generation sources, energy storage technologies will be indispensable. Among the energy storage technologies, battery energy storage technology is considered to be most viable. In particular, a redox flow battery, which is suitable for large scale energy storage, has currently been developed at various organizations around the world.
To realize a low-carbon society, the introduction of renewable energies, such as solar or wind power, is increasingly being promoted these days worldwide. A major challenge presented by solar and wind power generators is their fluctuation in output. If they are introduced in large numbers to the power system, problems, such as voltage rises, frequency fluctuations and surplus of the generated power, are predicted to occur. As a solution to these problems, energy storage technologies are attracting attention,amongst which energy storage batteries are expected to become indispensable for use. Various energy storage batteries are being developed and many application verification projects using such batteries are currently being promoted. Thus, expectations are growing for their practical use to the power system in near future. The redox flow (RF) battery, a type of energy storage battery, has been actively developed.
Battery energy storage technology is superior in technical integrity to the above energy storage technologies and has excellent practicality because it can be installed and distributed in suburban areas. It is thus a highly promising technology.
In Japan, most RF batteries that have been put into practice use at the sites of consumers comprise several hundreds of kilowatts class facilities. In other countries, on the other hand, relatively small systems of a few kilowatts to several tens of kilowatts have been commonly used for independent power supplies, so far.
GRT is working on the development of such batteries for house-hold and industrial applications.